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Study of various factors
Things to consider while doing financial planning are
Time horizon and goals
It is important to understand what the individual’s goals are, and over what time period they want to achieve their goals. Some goals are short term goals, those that people want to achieve within a year. For such goals it is important to be conservative in one’s approach and not take too much risk. For long term goals, however, one can afford to take more risk and use time to one’s advantage.
Risk tolerance
Every individual should know what their capacity to take risk is. Some investments can be more risky than others. These will not be suitable for someone of a low risk profile, or for goals that require being conservative. Crucially, one’s risk profile will change across their life’s stages. As a young person with no dependants or financial liabilities, one might be able to take lots of risk. However, if this young person gets married and has a child, the person will have dependants and higher fiscal responsibilities. So, the person's approach to risk and finances cannot be the same as it was when they were single.
Liquidity needs
How quickly one can access the money, when it is needed. If investment made on an asset needs to sold to procure funds in order meet a goal, then it needs to be understood how easily one can sell the asset. Usually, money market and stock market related assets are easy to liquidate. On the other hand, something like real estate might take a long time to sell.
Inflation
Inflation is a facet of the economic life in India. The product that is brought today is almost double the price of what it was ten years ago. The purchasing power of money is going down every year. Therefore, the cost of achieving goals needs to be seen in terms of what the inflated price would be in the future.
Need for growth or income
When an individual makes investments he/she needs to think about what is required, whether capital appreciation or income. Not all investments satisfy both requirements. A young person should usually consider investing for capital appreciation, to take advantage of their young age. An older person however might be more interested in generating income for themselves.
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